International Journal of Food and Agriculture

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American Journal of Social Research (ISSN:2641-3302) is an open access journal publishing research articles, review articles, editorials and letters to the editor.

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Analysis of the Techniques and Tactics of Taiwan’s “Rookie” Lin Junru

Hongyang Qiu
Nowadays, the world table tennis world has formed a situation in which the world is playing against China, and Chinese table tennis has occupied a dominant position in the world. The status of table tennis hegemony in various countries is even more eye-catching, especially in Asian countries. The rise of the new batch of players has also made us feel the sense of crisis. In particular, the Taiwanese rookie Lin Gnome has been very eye-catching in recent times. He has defeated the Japanese genius Lin Gnome, Lin Gaoyuan and other outstanding players. Therefore, we selected Lin’s video of recent competitions and analyzed the skills and tactics of Lin Shuru through three periods of statistics.

Education Lecturers’ Perception and Attitude towards Massive Open Online Courses Attitude of School Administrators in Niger State, Nigeria

FALODE, Oluwole Caleb, Usman, Zaliha Ndatsu, Ilufoye Timothy Olawale & Awoyemi, Idowu David
This study investigated the perception and attitude of education lecturers towards Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) in institutions of higher learning within Niger State, Nigeria. The influence of gender was also examined. The study adopted a descriptive survey design and 138 participants were selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study, and a 14-item questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was subjected to both validation and reliability checks. Data gathered from the administration of the instrument were analyzed using Mean, Standard Deviation and t-test statistics. A decision rule was set, in which, a mean score of 3.0 and above was considered Agreed (positive perception/attitude) while a mean score below 3.0 was considered Disagreed (negative perception/attitude). Findings revealed that lecturers’ perception and attitude towards massive open online courses were positive with cumulative mean scores of 4.07 and 4.03 out of possible 5.0. Also, gender as a moderating variable, had influence on lecturers’ perception and attitude towards MOOCs. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that education lecturers should be encouraged to participate in MOOCs in order to update their knowledge and skills. This can be achieved through the provision of enabling work environment such as internet wi-fi and learning tools that support synchronous and asynchronous online learning and by recognizing relevant certificates obtained through MOOCs during staff promotion exercise.

Conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination in Electronic Mode: Preparedness and Attitude of School Administrators in Niger State, Nigeria

FALODE, Oluwole Caleb (Ph. D) & AYODELE, Akinbowale Dele
This study was carried out to ascertain the preparedness and attitude of school administrators in Niger State towards conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in electronic mode. Descriptive survey research design was adopted and the sample for the study comprised 300 school administrators from 150 (75 public and 75 private) secondary schools in Niger State. A combination of purposive, proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select respondents for this study. Researchers-designed questionnaire that was divided into section A, B and C was used to collect data on demographic profiles, attitude and preparedness respectively. Using Cronbach alpha formula, the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire for sections B and C were 0.89 and 0.96 respectively. The collected data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test statistics. Two research questions were answered and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results revealed that school administrators in Niger State have positive attitude towards conduct of SSCE in electronic mode, but are not fully prepared for it. It also was discovered that while attitudes of school administrators do not differ based on school type, significant difference exists in the level of preparedness for conduct of SSCE in electronic mode. Hence, it was recommended among others that appropriate governments, non-governmental agencies and school administrators should place more priority on making provision for adequate basic facilities in terms of human and materials needed for effective and efficient e-exams system particularly in the public schools.

Governance and Leadership Practices and Challenges in Ethiopia. The Case of Dukem Town, Oromia Regional state

Jemal Abagissa
Governance is a concept more inclusive than traditional government and administration and reflects the fact that increasingly there is a much wider range of participants in these processes than was traditionally the case. The attainment of good governance is a function of effective leadership. Leadership focuses on the accomplishment of the mission and goals of particular organization where the performance of leaders is measured by the delivery of products and services to meet the needs of its customers by ensuring effectiveness, openness, accountability, and participatory decision-making. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of leadership on governance effectiveness in Dukem town. The population of this study were development team coordinators, representatives of private business organizations, and community institutions of the town. In addition, cabinet members and civil servants of the town administration were the target population for the source of data in this assessment. A total of 145 samples were selected using purposive and random sampling methods. The findings show that an underlying characteristic of a leader that results in effective and better performance was unsatisfactory. The informants argued that poor commitment is noticeable in the implementation of good governance in the town. Leaders are promoted to higher positions without being sufficiently prepared for the leadership role and with less sufficient understanding of the significance of good governance principles. In addition, lack of competence, inefficient and ineffective monitoring and evaluation system were major factors that contributed to ineffectiveness of leadership practices of the town administration. This poor achievement is manifested in poor coordination with stakeholders, rent seeking attitudes and poor commitment of the leadership and employees.
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DOENÇAS NEGLIGENCIADAS E O SEU IMPACTO SOCIAL NAS POPULAÇÕES

Silva T.G¹, Canto V.B2, Ferreira A. G3, Barbosa L.M.S4, Silva M.G.M.S5, Maia C.S6
As doenças negligenciadas são o conjunto de 17 doenças causadas por agentes infecto-parasitários que produzem importante dano físico, cognitivo e socioeconômico principalmente em populações de baixa renda, já que são predominantes em países subdesenvolvidos e com condições precárias de vida, onde há pessoas sem acesso a água tratada e saneamento básico. Estas doenças que não só prevalecem em condições de pobreza, mas também contribuem para a manutenção do quadro de desigualdade, já que representam forte entrave ao desenvolvimento dos países. Objetivos: Evidenciar o impacto social causado pelas doenças negligenciadas. Trata-se de uma revisão de literatura, na qual foram selecionados 6 artigos científicos, publicados nos últimos 5 anos nas bases de dados Scopus da Elsevier e SciELO e cujos critérios de inclusão foram artigos com texto completo disponível. Como descritores foram utilizados: “Doenças negligenciadas” e “Fatores socioeconômicos” nos idiomas inglês e português. Os efeitos das doenças negligenciadas podem ser observados de forma direta pelos indicadores de morbidade e mortalidade, onde no mundo, mais de 1 milhão de pessoas morrem por ano e cerca de três mil morrem por dia vítimas destas doenças. Tais doenças também causam impacto na educação e economia, já que acometem em especial homens e crianças. Além disso, salienta-se o impacto individual relacionado ao estigma e à exclusão social provocados a partir das doenças negligenciadas. As doenças negligenciadas ainda são um dos grandes obstáculos para o desenvolvimento dos países subdesenvolvidos e daqueles com renda média. A prevenção, tratamento, controle ou a eliminação dessas doenças é de extrema importância por dois aspectos: o moral e o socioeconômico. O campo moral corresponde ao princípio de ser de direito do ser humano o acesso à saúde. No aspecto socioeconômico está a possibilidade da liberação do potencial econômico dos países atingidos por estas doenças, visto a possibilidade de novos investimentos.

Conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination in Electronic Mode: Preparedness and Attitude of School Administrators in Niger State, Nigeria

FALODE, Oluwole Caleb (Ph. D) & AYODELE, Akinbowale Dele
This study was carried out to ascertain the preparedness and attitude of school administrators in Niger State towards conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in electronic mode. Descriptive survey research design was adopted and the sample for the study comprised 300 school administrators from 150 (75 public and 75 private) secondary schools in Niger State. A combination of purposive, proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select respondents for this study. Researchers-designed questionnaire that was divided into section A, B and C was used to collect data on demographic profiles, attitude and preparedness respectively. Using Cronbach alpha formula, the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire for sections B and C were 0.89 and 0.96 respectively. The collected data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test statistics. Two research questions were answered and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results revealed that school administrators in Niger State have positive attitude towards conduct of SSCE in electronic mode, but are not fully prepared for it. It also was discovered that while attitudes of school administrators do not differ based on school type, significant difference exists in the level of preparedness for conduct of SSCE in electronic mode. Hence, it was recommended among others that appropriate governments, non-governmental agencies and school administrators should place more priority on making provision for adequate basic facilities in terms of human and materials needed for effective and efficient e-exams system particularly in the public schools.

Analysis of the Techniques and Tactics of Taiwan’s “Rookie” Lin Junru

Hongyang Qiu
Nowadays, the world table tennis world has formed a situation in which the world is playing against China, and Chinese table tennis has occupied a dominant position in the world. The status of table tennis hegemony in various countries is even more eye-catching, especially in Asian countries. The rise of the new batch of players has also made us feel the sense of crisis. In particular, the Taiwanese rookie Lin Gnome has been very eye-catching in recent times. He has defeated the Japanese genius Lin Gnome, Lin Gaoyuan and other outstanding players. Therefore, we selected Lin’s video of recent competitions and analyzed the skills and tactics of Lin Shuru through three periods of statistics.

Effect of Self-Esteem on Safety Awareness among the Youth

Linus Agbo, Peter Nnaji, Kelechi T. Ugwu
Communal violence has become a reoccurring event in some parts of the world including Nigeria and there is need for continual search of the underlying factors in safety awareness. Therefore, this present study was aimed to investigate gender and self-esteem as a psychological mechanism that could predict safety awareness among the youth towards. A cross sectional design was employed and a total of 706 participants aged between 18 to 40 years were drawn from Abakaliki in Ebonyi state and Calabar in Cross River state of Nigeria. Data was collected using a Linkert type, self-report measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Safety Awareness Scale (SAS). A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis and the result revealed that self-esteem as a psychological mechanism did not predict safety awareness among the respondents whereas gender as a factor predicted safety awareness among the participants. The findings of the study are discussed.
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