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Socioeconomic Factors Associated with the Coinfection of Tuberculosis and HIV

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common complications related to HIV infection worldwide, especially in developing countries. Due to their strong association with poor living conditions, economically disadvantaged individuals are more vulnerable to developing the disease. In Brazil, it is the main cause of death among seropositives. To verify the association between socioeconomic factors and HIV / TB coinfection in northeast region of Brazil. A literature review was carried out in SciELO, Google Academica and LILACS, crossing the descriptors "Tuberculosis, HIV, Coinfection and epidemiology". The results were only included articles in the last six years in Portuguese, because it was a research whose objective was to evaluate the social situation related to HIV / TB coinfection in northeast region of Brazil. From the established criteria, 46 articles were found, 24 were evaluated and 10 were selected to compose this review. In Brazil, about 400,000 people were infected with the HIV virus in 2013. Of these, more than 120 thousand also had co-infection with the tuberculosis bacillus. In the last decade, 56% of the municipalities in the Northeast had records of HIV / TB coinfection, with the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas being the largest owners of this percentage. In Pernambuco, about 10% of individuals infected with TB have HIV infection. The pulmonary form of the disease is the most representative among the studies, being more common in young adults (between 20-49 years). It was found that socioeconomic factors such as low educational level (less than eight years of schooling), family monetary income on average of a minimum wage, poor housing conditions and poverty are among the main factors of association of HIV / TB coinfection. In view of the above, it was observed the need to carry out new studies aimed at the creation of measures to combat HIV / TB, as well as the expansion of political and social actions in order to improve the quality of life of the economically disadvantaged population

Trachoma: Clinical Phase and Methods of Diagnosis

The neglected disease is little studied or even that is not on the agenda of research and development of large pharmaceutical industries. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) is the set of diseases caused by infectious or parasitic agents, endemic in poor populations. One of them is trachoma, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes recurrent keratoconjunctivitis producing scarring on the upper palpebral conjunctiva, which can lead to the formation of entropy (eyelid with the margin facing the eye) and trichiasis (inverted lashes touching the eye). It is important for the health professional to identify early trachoma, detecting the first clinical phases of the disease through a quality diagnosis, avoiding the most severe phase of blindness. Describe the clinical phases and the form of trachoma diagnosis.Integrative review. We used the following guiding question: "What are the clinical phases of trachoma and the forms of diagnosis? "The search was performed in October 2016 in the MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL. Articles in the English, Spanish and Portuguese languages, published from 2012 to 2016 were included and excluded review articles, critical reviews, and articles that did not respond to the guiding question. The clinical phases are inflammatory and sequelae.The first includes follicular inflammatory trachoma (five or more follicles in the upper tarsal conjunctiva with a half millimeter of diameter) and intense inflammatory trachoma (large inflammatory thickening of the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid and red tarsal conjunctiva, rough with several follicles). The second phase includes trachoma cicatricial (scars on the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid shiny and fibrous); Trachomatous trichiasis (eyelashes rubbed the eyeball, inverted lashes or eyelashes removed) and corneal opacification (opacity of the easily visible concave on the pupil decreases visual acuity). The clinical diagnosis is sovereign, in this way it is necessary to obtain information on the symptoms presented by the patient and to observe the eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctivae and corneas with the aid of the binocular lens and adequate illumination. Laboratory diagnosis uses conjunctival scraping of the upper eyelid and detects Chlamydia trachomatis and also direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis. To avoid the sequelae phase of the disease, which can lead to total blindness, it is necessary to identify the early stages of trachoma in an early manner, using clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and / or direct immunofluorescence diagnosis. For this, it is important for the nurse to be aware of the various forms of presentation of this pathology, which unfortunately is still neglected, thereby reducing or even eradicating it.

Intestinal Parasites in Children of Public Crafts of Maceió-Al

The parasitic diseases are among the most discussed diseases in underdeveloped countries and affect mainly school children. Such diseases reflect the precarious sanitary conditions of a region or population. Infections occur due to lack of proper hygiene habits, lack of basic sanitation and / or treated water. These enteroparasitoses can affect nutritional balance and also cause significant complications, contributing to low school performance. In this context, the objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitoses in children aged one to six years, in Maceió, Alagoas state. The samples were collected in two municipal nurseries, both located in the urban area. The samples were collected in July and October of 2015 and then sent to the State University of Alagoas. Samples were analyzed using the Spontaneous Sedimentation technique. The research was approved by the Ethics Committee of CESMAC with protocol number 939.035. The present study found a frequency of different intestinal parasitoses in the 37 children from one to six years studied. Of the 37 children in the study, 20 (54.05%) had no parasites and 15 (40.54%) presented some type of intestinal parasitosis. Of the fifteen positive children, four of them had biparasitism and one presented a positive result for three types of parasitoses. The most common parasites were Entamoeba coli (13.5%), Endolimax nana (13.5%), Ascaris lumbricoides (10.8%), Entamoeba histolytica / E. dispar (10.8%), Giardia lamblia , 1%) and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%). Intestinal parasites continue to be a serious public health problem and are generally not actively worked by public authorities and society in general, allowing the infection and spread of such parasites.

Nursing Strategies for the Control of Systemic Erythematosus Lupus

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a chronic condition, of autoimmune, inflammatory and multisystemic origin, with a higher incidence in women in the reproductive period. This condition can spread abd affect other systems, including psychosomatic dimensions. It can be triggered by environmental, immunological, genetic, and external factors such as drugs. Based on the clinical aspects found in literatures of the classic form of the disease, it is proposed to draw up nursing strategies for coping with it. The coping and self-preservation strategies were: Guidance on the exposure and use of sunscreens, demonstration of well-being positions to ease discomfort (gastric and respiratory), stimulate physical exercise, establish routine nursing for evaluation of blood count and vital signs, refer the patient to the nutrition service whenever necessary, and offer psychological support for the acceptance of his or her own image. In the presence of clinical findings (tissue damage resulting from photosensitivity, cutaneous and articular lesions and oral ulcers, etc.), laboratory tests (hemogram, FAN (antenatal factor), among others) and clinical manifestations presented by patients with the disease (fever, loss of weight, renal problems, pleuritis, myalgias, pericarditis, gastrointestinal problems, peripheral neuropathies and low self-esteem), there is a great advance in the clinical and psychological improvement of the patients who use these therapeutic techniques, as a consequence of the diagnosis and early interventions. These interventions promise to trigger a self-esteem improvement in the patients, as well as to broaden the discourse.