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Political, social and economic issues of the rehabilitated ex-combatants in the Sri Lankan Northern Province

Politically, socially and economically, Tamils in multi-ethnic Sri Lanka struggled to win their self-determination due to external bias based upon an international perception of their organization. Initially, these struggles along the lines of non-violence were later transformed into armed conflicts; Those involved in armed conflicts have identified themselves as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In the early days, the afflicted Tamil people joined the protest in the name of their own choice. The escalating conflict between them and the Sri Lankan army in 1983 ended with the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 2009. After the end of the 30-year war, the Sri Lankan government has taken a keen interest in the transition to conflict and has taken various steps in this regard. Most notably, the LTTE was rehabilitated and reintegrated into society from the rehabilitation camps by the Sri Lankan military. Some international studies have indi-cated that the rehabilitated ex-combatants are now facing various difficulties. Difficulties ranging from em-ployment to daily sustenance and adjusting to the mainstream population of Sri Lanka. Most of the ex-combatants feel they do not belong or fit into mainstream Sri Lanka. Given the importance of good govern-ance and national reconciliation today, it remains to be examined what political, social and economic issues the rehabilitated ex-combatants face after reintegration. This is an attempt to uncover the empirical evidence of the daily challenges faced by the rehabilitated ex-combatants. They are unable to make a living with their temporary livelihood and face their respective struggles just to survive every day. They live in fear perpetu-ally and they are losing hope fast. Former women cadres of LTTE are increasingly ignored in society. Their political rights and independence are questionable, and the government has not taken any serious steps to reintegrate them into society. They also fear that their political, social and economic neglect will pose a so-cial danger in the coming years. Their only aspirations moving forward is to have a peaceful life and con-tribute positively to the general society concerning Sri Lanka's plural landscape in terms of ethnicity and re-ligious affiliation.

Sri Lankan Reconstruction and Reconciliation A Special Reference to Northern Province

This research is about the reconciliation and reconstruction process in post-war Sri Lanka. Rec-onciliation is a complex process that can rebuild the relationship between major conflicting parties. During the relations between ethnic groups became highly deteriorated. However. the end of civil war largely instigated the need for reconciliation and reconstruction to attain sus-tainable peace and development. Though attempts were made by the previous government to rehabilitate ex-combatants from the direct violence, infrastructural development, resettlement of war-related displacements, they did not ensure the reconciliation of ethnic groups due to several shortcomings in the process. With the regime change in 2015, the so-called ‘good gov-ernance' regime has initiated several measures to strengthen post-war democracy, development, and reconciliation. release of lands in the Northern Province, investigating the missed person-als, rehabilitation of war crimes, the formation of Reconciliation Task Forces, the discussions on a new constitution, radiuses the military forces, road, and railway development are some of those measures introduced expected to strengthen reconciliation and reconstruction process. Though the present government has taken the above masseurs about reconciliation and devel-opment this study argues the current development and reconciliation process and achievements. The study adopted a qualitative approach to collect data, particularly through a semi-structured interview, focus group discussions and observations.

Effect of Self-Esteem on Safety Awareness among the Youth

Communal violence has become a reoccurring event in some parts of the world including Nigeria and there is need for continual search of the underlying factors in safety awareness. Therefore, this present study was aimed to investigate gender and self-esteem as a psychological mechanism that could predict safety awareness among the youth towards. A cross sectional design was employed and a total of 706 participants aged between 18 to 40 years were drawn from Abakaliki in Ebonyi state and Calabar in Cross River state of Nigeria. Data was collected using a Linkert type, self-report measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Safety Awareness Scale (SAS). A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for the statistical analysis and the result revealed that self-esteem as a psychological mechanism did not predict safety awareness among the respondents whereas gender as a factor predicted safety awareness among the participants. The findings of the study are discussed.

Assessing the Role of Non-governmental Organization in Community Development in Hidhabu Abote District the Case of World Vision Ethiopia

Non-governmental organizations /NGOs/ as LED actors contribute in promotion of education in developing countries. The collaboration and networking in Promoting education between NGOs, the government organs and other actors are not often assessed scientifically. The objective of this study is to assessing the Role of NGOs in Education sector in Hidhabu Abote District the Case of World Vision Ethiopia. To finalize it, the research method employed was descriptive study. Survey questionnaire was used to gather the relevant quantitative data. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structure interviews, focus group discussion and personal observations. The collected data were descriptively analyzed. WVE, is contributing in education programs, child sponsorship and in the areas of WASH and livelihoods. It also involves in environment protection strategies but not with good results. The study concludes with the recommendation that substantive networking and collaboration is needed between the NGOs and local/Woreda government at one hand and awareness creation of education for the community on the other hand.