Conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination in Electronic Mode: Preparedness and Attitude of School Administrators in Niger State, Nigeria
This study was carried out to ascertain the preparedness and attitude of school administrators in Niger State towards conduct of Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) in electronic mode. Descriptive survey research design was adopted and the sample for the study comprised 300 school administrators from 150 (75 public and 75 private) secondary schools in Niger State. A combination of purposive, proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select respondents for this study. Researchers-designed questionnaire that was divided into section A, B and C was used to collect data on demographic profiles, attitude and preparedness respectively. Using Cronbach alpha formula, the reliability coefficients of the questionnaire for sections B and C were 0.89 and 0.96 respectively. The collected data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test statistics. Two research questions were answered and two null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results revealed that school administrators in Niger State have positive attitude towards conduct of SSCE in electronic mode, but are not fully prepared for it. It also was discovered that while attitudes of school administrators do not differ based on school type, significant difference exists in the level of preparedness for conduct of SSCE in electronic mode. Hence, it was recommended among others that appropriate governments, non-governmental agencies and school administrators should place more priority on making provision for adequate basic facilities in terms of human and materials needed for effective and efficient e-exams system particularly in the public schools.
Governance and Leadership Practices and Challenges in Ethiopia. The Case of Dukem Town, Oromia Regional state
Governance is a concept more inclusive than traditional government and administration and reflects the fact that increasingly there is a much wider range of participants in these processes than was traditionally the case. The attainment of good governance is a function of effective leadership. Leadership focuses on the accomplishment of the mission and goals of particular organization where the performance of leaders is measured by the delivery of products and services to meet the needs of its customers by ensuring effectiveness, openness, accountability, and participatory decision-making. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of leadership on governance effectiveness in Dukem town. The population of this study were development team coordinators, representatives of private business organizations, and community institutions of the town. In addition, cabinet members and civil servants of the town administration were the target population for the source of data in this assessment. A total of 145 samples were selected using purposive and random sampling methods. The findings show that an underlying characteristic of a leader that results in effective and better performance was unsatisfactory. The informants argued that poor commitment is noticeable in the implementation of good governance in the town. Leaders are promoted to higher positions without being sufficiently prepared for the leadership role and with less sufficient understanding of the significance of good governance principles. In addition, lack of competence, inefficient and ineffective monitoring and evaluation system were major factors that contributed to ineffectiveness of leadership practices of the town administration. This poor achievement is manifested in poor coordination with stakeholders, rent seeking attitudes and poor commitment of the leadership and employees.
After years of political and economic system reform and rapid conomic evelopment, profound changes have taken place in the social structure and pople's way of life in our country. At the same time, with the continuous deepening of the social transformation in China, the contradiction between the growing needs of the people for a better life and the unbalanced and inadequate development has deepened, so it is urgent to innovate the social governance model, means and contents. Social work plays a unique role in the process of participating in social governance, and its role is outstanding in the refinement of social governance. By using the method of literature research and combining with the experience of social work first-line service, this paper probes into the agreement between social work and social governance, the inevitable trend of social work participation in social governance refinement and the new requirements for social work by social governance refinement, and finally puts forward the path of social work participation in social governance refinement development: service refinement promotes governance refinement and constructs a new pattern of co-governance sharing.
The Effect of Translating English into First Language in EFL Classroom: The Case of Two Secondary Schools
The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of translating English into the students’ first language on students’ learning of English at the two selected secondary schools. For selecting participants of this study, simple random sampling technique was employed. Accordingly, one hundred eleven students and three English language teachers’ were selected from the two schools as participant of the study. Five data gathering instruments namely, observation, questionnaire, focus group discussion, interview and audio-taped lessons were used to collect the data. To analyze the responses given through each tool, descriptive survey method using frequency and percentages was employed. Results of the data show that both teachers and students have positive attitudes toward the use of translation except a few who reject it. Even if audio-taped lessons indicated some mismatch of translated sentences and the original English language versions, the majority of sample students further agreed that translation and L1 use helps them to make difficult concepts easy; to feel comfort; to feel at ease, and develop target language vocabularies. Based on the findings, it is also essential to design an English course considering the relative importance of translating English into the students’ first language.
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